Việt Type 2nd ed. Trương Support
Vietnamese Typography Second Edition Donny Trương Support This Book

Modified Letters

[Accents] ought to help the reader by making the text more legible, gently and unobtrusively bringing to his attention the change in pronunciation and the proper phonetic values of the letters.

Oldřich Menhart

As demonstrated in the alphabet, the Vietnamese writing system uses seven modified letters. Four have separated diacritical marks: ă, â, ê, and ô. Three have connected diacritical marks: đ, ơ, and ư. This chapter provides further details of the modified letters.

Letter Ă

The ă has a breve placed above the letter a. The a-breve can take on an additonal acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). A breve is curved and must not be mistaken for a pointed caron, which does not exist in the Vietnamese writing system.

ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ

Letter Â

The â has a circumflex placed above the letter a. The a-circumflex can take on an additonal acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, a chevron-shaped circumflex is also used on e (ê) and o (ô).

â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ
Cabin, designed by Impallari Type

Letter Đ

The đ has a cross bar through the letter d. The đ is an initial-only consonant. The uppercase Đ has a horizontal bar in the middle of the cap height of the letter D. The lowercase đ has a bar centered between the ascender and the x-height of the letter d.

Đđ Đđ Đđ Đđ
Frequenz (top), designed by Sebastian Losch and Pliego (bottom), designed by Juanjo López

Letter Ê

The ê has a circumflex placed above the letter e. The e-circumflex can take on an additonal acute (ế), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, a chevron-shaped circumflex is also used on a (â) and o (ô).

ê ế ề ể ễ ệ ê ế ề ể ễ ệ ê ế ề ể ễ ệ ê ế ề ể ễ ệ

Letter Ô

The ô has a circumflex placed above the letter o. The o-circumflex can take on an additonal acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, a chevron-shaped circumflex is also used on a (â) and e (ê).

ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ
IBM Plex Serif, designed by Mike Abbink and in collaboration with Bold Monday

Letter Ơ

The ơ has a horn attached and aligned to the right of the letter o. The o-horn can take on an additonal acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, a horn is also used on u (ư).

ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ

Letter Ư

The ư has a horn attached and aligned to the right of the letter u. The u-horn can take on an additonal acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, a horn is also used on o (ơ).

ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự
Exchange, designed by Tobias Frere-Jones