Việt Type 2nd ed. Trương Support
Việtnamese Typography Second Edition Donny Trương Support This Book

Modified Letters

[Accents] ought to help the reader by making the text more legible, gently and unobtrusively bringing to his attention the change in pronunciation and the proper phonetic values of the letters.

Oldřich Menhart

As demonstrated in the alphabet, the Vietnamese writing system uses seven modified letters: ă, â, đ, ê, ô, ơ, and ư. Four letters have separated diacritical marks: ă, â, ê, and ô. Three letters have connected diacritical marks: đ, ơ, and ư. This chapter provides further details of the modified letters.

Letter Ă

The ă has a breve placed above the letter a. The breve can be combined with the acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). The breve is curved and must not be mistaken for the pointed caron, which does not exist in the Vietnamese writing system.

ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ ă ắ ằ ẳ ẵ ặ

Letter Â

The â has a circumflex placed above the letter a. The circumflex can be combined with the acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, the chevron-shaped circumflex is also used on e (ê) and o (ô).

â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ â ấ ầ ẩ ẫ ậ

Letter Đ

The đ has a cross bar through the letter d. The đ is an initial-only consonant. The uppercase Đ has a horizontal bar in the middle of the cap height of the letter D. The lowercase đ has a bar centered between the ascender and the x-height of the letter d.

Đđ Đđ Đđ Đđ

Letter Ê

The ê has a circumflex placed above the letter e. The circumflex can be combined with the acute (ế), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, the chevron-shaped circumflex is also used on a (â) and o (ô).

ê ế ề ể ễ ệ ê ế ề ể ễ ệ ê ế ề ể ễ ệ ê ế ề ể ễ ệ
Halcom designed by Jonathan Hill

Letter Ô

The ô has a circumflex placed above the letter o. The circumflex can be combined with the acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, the chevron-shaped circumflex is also used on a (â) and e (ê).

ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ ô ố ồ ổ ỗ ộ
Skolar designed by David Březina

Letter Ơ

The ơ has a horn attached and aligned to the right of the letter o. The horn can be combined with the acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, the horn is also used on u (ư).

ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ ơ ớ ờ ở ỡ ợ

Letter Ư

The ư has a horn attached and aligned to the right of the letter u. The horn can be combined with the acute (), grave (), hook above (), tilde (), or underdot (). In Vietnamese, the horn is also used on o (ơ).

ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự ư ứ ừ ử ữ ự